Low power consumption hydrogen sensor
 Resistive sensor of explosive concentrations of hydrogen
 Hydrogen gas analyzers                             
 Hydrogen sulphide gas-analyzer                      
 Nitrogen dioxide gas-analyzer                    
 Ammonia gas analizer                              
 Sensor based explosives detector                      
 Portative hydrogen leak detector                      
 Portative hydrogen gas-analyzer VG-2                       
 Portative hydrogen gas-analyzer VG-5                      
 Publications 2003 
 Publications 2004 
 Publications 2005 
 Publications 2006 
 Publications 2007 
 Publications 2008 
 Publications 2009 
  2010 . 
  2011 . 
  2012 . 
National Research Nuclear University MEPhI

Solid state and nanosystems physics department
Laboratory "Development and making of sensors based on MIS-structures"


  1. Nikolaev I. N., Krashevskaya V. V. Rapid resistive sensor of explosive hydrogen concentrations. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), 3 (2004) 59-62.
  The new type of resistive sensor of hydrogen concentration (higher 1 volume %) which action based on chemical reaction of reduction palladium oxide thin film by hydrogen is suggested for practical using. Responsible time of sensor makes up 0,1 s. Sensor can operate in different gas medium: air, nitrogen, helium, inert gases, hydrocarbons and others.

  2. Nikolaev I.N., Litvinov A.V. Measuring procedure for small concentrations of H2 and H2S above the the surface of water. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), 5 (2004) 59-60.
   Simple measuring procedure for small concentrations of H2 and H2S (on the level of ppm fractions) above the surface of water by using sensor gas analyzer is suggested. The procedure is easily realized in nonlaboratory conditions.

  3. Nikolaev I. N., Galiev R. R., Litvinov A. V., Utotchkin U. A. Sensor based selective gas-analyzer for low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), 6 (2004) 67-69.
  Sensor (based on MOS-capacitor) gas-analyzer of hydrogen sulfide concentration in the range of 5-200 ppb (on level of maximum allowable concentration in sanitary zone) is suggested. Gas-analyzer is fully selective attitude to hydrogen sulfide.

  4. Nikolaev I. N., Litvinov A. V. Sensor based hydrogen leak detector. Tyazheloe mashinostroenie ('Heavy engineering', Russian scientific journal), 6 (2004) 47-48.
  Sensor (based on MOS-capacitor) detector of hydrogen leakages is suggested. Regarding to high hydrogen sensitivity the detector can sense the leakages in the range of 10-5-10-11 m3*Pa/s. The device is superior contrary to spectrometric leak detectors, i. g. it is easy to use, has low cost, small size and weight. Also sensor leak detector has advantages in case of containment inspection of heavy profiled and large constructions.

  5. Nikolaev I.N., Litvinov A.V., Halfin T.M. Automated hydrogen gas-analyzers in the range of concentration 10-6-1,0 Vol. %. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), 7 (2004) 54-56.
   Three automated hydrogen gas-analyzer modifications in the range of concentration from 10-61.0 Vol. % were suggested. The results of measuring are periodically recorded in the internal and external memory in real time for computer processing in the future.

  6. Nikolaev I.N., Emelin E. V. Portable NO2 gas analyser based on MOS-sensor in the range of concentrations 0,02-2 ppm. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), 11 (2004) 54-55.
   Portable NO2 gas analyser based on MOS-sensor prepared by using of thin film laser deposition method has been fabricated. The gas analyser is capable to detect low NO2 concentrations in the range from 0,02 to 2 ppm.


  7. Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N. Degradation of characteristics of MOS-sensors under action H2S, NO2 2. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), 8 (2005) 41-48.
  Degradation of MIS-sensors characteristics under exposure on H2S, NO2 and 2 air has been investigated. Degradation on H2S and NO2 can be eliminated by long-continued annealing in air at a high temperature but degradation on 2 is found to be irreversible. The method for the elimination of reversible degradation of MIS-sensors as a sensitive element of gas analyzers is offered.

  8. Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev N.N. On the mechanism of MIS sensors sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), 8 (2005) 42-45.
  Based on experimental data, the paper shows that MIS sensors sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide is determined by H2S molecules diffusion through the pores of the gates fine crystal palladium film to metaldielectric interface and by molecules trapping. Up to 180C molecules do not dissociate on the gates palladium film. The earlier detected sensor performance degradation under H2S exposure is reversible up to 180C and does not impede MIS sensors application as sensing elements in gas analyzers.

  9. Emelin E.V., Nikolaev I.N., Sokolov A.V. MIS sensors sensitivity to various gases air content. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), 10 (2005) 37-39.
  The sensitivity of Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si MIS sensors to the air content of various gases is measured. The paper shows that MIS sensors demonstrate the highest sensitivity to H2S, NO2, C2H5SH, H2, D2, and NH3. It suggests that sensors sensitivity is determined by the presence of electric dipole moments in the analyte molecules.


  10. Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N. Interference of MIS-sensors sensitivities to gases concentrations in air. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), 2 (2006) 62-64.
  Interference of MIS-sensors sensitivities has been detected. It is consist the response of sensors to concentration of measurable gas in air depends on kind and concentration of concomitant gas. The sensitivity is depends on proportions of measurable and concomitant gases. The mechanism has been suggests is suppose that the interference effect is determined by molecules gas population of catches on metal-insulator interface.

  11. Nikolaev I. N., Ounitchenko P. O. Sensitivity of MOS-sensors to vapours of organic compounds. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), 3 (2006) 34-37.
  Sensitivities of MOS-sensors (Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si) to vapours of 13 organic compounds are measured. It is shown that the sensitivities are 104-106 times lower than sensitivities to simple gases. The sensitivities can be increased by means of external heating element. Received results are discussed using a model of sensitivity that supposes existence of charged traps on the metal-oxide interface.

  12. Yemelin E. V., Nikolaev I. N. The sensitivity of MOS-sensors to hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen dioxide in different conditions. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), 5 (2006) 68-70.
  The sensitivity of MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) - sensors with Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si structures to hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen dioxide has been measured in the atmosphere of nitrogen and oxygen and also in air. It was shown that the MOS-sensors can operate in different conditions, except the corrosive gases. Also the MOS-sensors can operate in vacuum.

  13. Nikolaev I. N., Yemelin E. V., Zharkovskiy A. E. The humidity influence on MOS-sensors characteristics. Sensor (Russian scientific journal), 3 (2006) 15-18.
  The sensitivity of MOS-sensors with Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si structures to the water vapour has been measured. The humidity influence on MOS-sensors sensitivity to different gases has been determined. It was revealed that the sensitivity of MOS-sensors to the water vapour is lower on few orders of magnitude than the sensitivity to hydrogen. The changes of relative humidity of the environment haven't an influence upon MOS-sensors sensitivity to H2, H2S, NO2 and NH3 over the range 50 - 100% at temperature 23C. High humidity (drop point) doesn't cause the degradation of sensors characteristics at room temperature.

  14. Nikolaev I. N., Litvinov A. V., Yemelin E. V. A model of MIS sensors sensitivity mechanism to gas concentration. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), 7 (2006) 66-73.
  A model of MIS sensors sensitivity to gas concentration is proposed. According to the model, the sensitivity occurs owing to the capture of gas molecules with electric dipole moments by polar traps located in the metal-insulator interface area. The model fairly reflects the available experimental data and outlines the ways to overcome problems that hamper MIS sensors application as gas analyzer sensing elements.

  15. Nikolaev I. N., Unichenko P. O. Sensor explosives detector. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), 10 (2006) 46-47.
   A mockup of sensor explosives detector is developed and fabricated. The device enables quick detection of explosives vapors such as trinitrotoluene, dinitrotoluene, nitroglycerine, etc., at the concentration level of - 10-12g/sm3

  16. Nikolaev I. N., Nozdrya D. A. About the possibility of use of sensor-based gas analyzers for diagnostics of diseases using breath test method. Physics medicine (Russian scientific journal), 2, V.16 (2006) 15-20.
   For our recently developed MIS-sensor based gas analyzers suited for hydrogen breath test and Helicobacter pylori infection detection successful laboratory tests were carried out. The analysis of the results reveals that the experience achieved can be applied for another breath test methods, thus making this technique competitive with regard to currently used expensive and complicated devices."


  17. Nozdrya D. A., Litvinov A. V., Nikolaev I. N. The portable ammonia gas-analyzer in the range of 0.02-104 ppm on basis of MOS-sensor. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), 6 (2007) 72-74 .
   "An ammonia gas-analyzer in the range of 0.02-104 ppm on basis of MOS-sensor is developed. Such a wide dynamic range is achieved by means of microprocessor adjusting of operating mode of sensor. The gas-analyzer is small-size, portable, simple in use and low-cost."


  18. Nikolaev I. N., Galiev R. R. Nanostructure of laser-deposited palladium thin films on different substrates. Journal of Surface Investigation. X-ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques, 2008, Vol. 2, No. 1, 98103.
   "The morphological features of palladium thin films deposited on different substrates are described. Film deposition has been performed by means of the pulsed laser evaporation method. It is shown that the grain structure of palladium films is formed independently of the substrate roughness. Particular emphasis is placed on the correlation between gas-sensitive metalinsulatorsemiconductor (MIS) sensor properties and the nanostructure of palladium films used as metal electrodes in these sensors. It is concluded that a change in the morphology of palladium films has no direct influence on the degradation of the hydrogen sulphide sensitivity of MIS sensors that arises after sensor annealing in air enriched with hydrogen."

  19.  Nikolaev I.N., Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V. The MOS - sensors for measurement concentrations of hydrogen in range 10-4-102 vol.%. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), 12 (2008) 48-52.
   "The new type of MOS - sensors, which allow to measure directly concentration of hydrogen in broadened range (to 10 vol.%). Using such sensors and the special scheme of choice gas samples, one can measure concentrations of hydrogen down to 100 vol.%. It can be created a new class of hydrogen gas - analyzer based on the developed MOS - sensors and suitable for solution series of hydrogen power engineering technical problems."

  20.  Lazebnik L.B., Mihaylov A.A., Morozov I.A., Nikolaev I.N., Nozdrya D.A., Churikova A.A. Estimation of efficiency of Helicobacter pylori diagnostics by means of an ammonia gas-analyzer on the basis of MIS-sensor in comparison with invasive diagnostics methods. Journal of experimental and clinical gastroenterology, 8 (2008) 54-58.
   "Successful clinical trials of MIS-sensor based device prototype for Helicobacter Pilory infection diagnostics by means of breath test has been carried out. Results analysis has revealed that such a device can be recommended to be adopted to a medical practice and can be competitive to up-to-date medical diagnostic equipment."


  21. Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N., Sulhanova K.N. An extension of measurable hydrogen concentrations range for MIS sensors. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), 4 (2009) 6-8.
   This article reports about the development of new type of MIS sensors with structure Ag-Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si, which are capable directly (without the special methods of choice gas sampling) measuring hydrogen concentrations down to 20 vol.% in air.

  22. Nikolaev I.N., Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V. The new type of strapping sites for molecules with dipole moments in dielectric. Solid state physics (Russian scientific journal), vol.51, 6 (2009) 1065-1069 .
   "The analysis of MOS-sensors sensitivity mechanism and series of experiments show, that electrical charged strapping sites for molecules with dipole moments are formed in thin dielectric layers, doped catalytic atoms. It is supposed, that the traps are nanoklasters, which consist of dielectric atoms and atoms of catalytic metal. It is possible, that this type of traps is observed in other physical phenomenon."

  23. Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V., Mihailov A.A., Nikolaev I.N. The MIS sensors for measurements concentrations H2S over the range 0,005-10 ppm in air. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), 6 (2009) 16-19.
   It was investigated the static characteristics H2S of MIS sensors over the range 2-7 ppm. It was established, that sensors with structures Pd-SiO2-Si and Pd-Si3N4-Si have sufficient concentration resolution of H2S and acceptable time resources of work, t = D/K, where D is the integrated dose of exposure in H2S, expressed in the unit ppmhour, and K is the average concentration of H2S in air. It was made a deduction about application of such sensors as sensitive elements gas-analyzers for control ambient air standard H2S at working area.


  24.  Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N. The particular of the MIS-sensors dynamic characteristics. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), 6 (2010) 12-17.
   This paper deals with the particular of dynamic characteristics, which was found on some type of the MIS-sensors. This particular consist in crossing through zero of the sensors signal during relaxation (after removal gas) and the sensors signal remain negative during long time. This phenomenon introduces relatively small error in measurements of gas concentration, therefore it can be neglect. However founded effect can be of interest for creation microscopical theory of trap centers, which are responsible for sensitivity to gases of the MIS-sensors.


  25.  Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N. The MIS-sensors with different metallic and dielectric layers. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), 2 (2011) 20-23.
   It was produced several type of MIS-sensors with different dielectric layers and metallic electrodes by means laser thin films evaporation. It was measured metrological characteristics of these sensors. It was found two type sensors with high and low sensitivity to H2, H2S, NO2 and NH3. These sensors can be used as sensitive elements of gas analyzers. It was demonstrated, that the presence of catalytic properties of the metallic electrodes isnt necessary condition for existence sensor sensitivity. This fact is interest for creation microscope theory of MIS-sensors sensitivity.


  26.  Litvinov A.V., Kalinina L.N., Nikolaev I.N. The hydrogen gas analyzer on the based of MISsensor with low power consumption. Metrology (Russian scientific journal), 12 (2012) 37-41.
   It was produce new type of sensors with structure Pd-Si3N4-SiO2-Si, which operate at temperatures 6-50º. On the based of creating sensors it was developed model of gas analyzer for measurements hydrogen concentrations in range 0,2-4 vol.%. It was reduced gas analyzers power consumption from 1,6 W to 0,1 W due to lack of heating element on the sensors.

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