Low power consumption hydrogen sensor
 Resistive sensor of explosive concentrations of hydrogen
 Hydrogen gas analyzers                             
 Hydrogen sulphide gas-analyzer                      
 Nitrogen dioxide gas-analyzer                    
 Ammonia gas analizer                              
 Sensor based explosives detector                      
 Portative hydrogen leak detector                      
 Portative hydrogen gas-analyzer VG-2                       
 Portative hydrogen gas-analyzer VG-5                      
National Research Nuclear University MEPhI

Solid state and nanosystems physics department
Laboratory "Development and making of sensors based on MIS-structures"


   57. Litvinov A., Etrekova M., Podlepetsky B., Samotaev N., Oblov K., Afanasyev A., Ilyin V. «MOSFE-Capacitor Silicon Carbide-Based Hydrogen Gas Sensors». Sensors, 2023, 23(7), 3760 (Q1). DOI
  “The features of the wide band gap SiC semiconductor use in the capacitive MOSFE sensors’ structure in terms of the hydrogen gas sensitivity effect, the response speed, and the measuring signals’ optimal parameters are studied. Sensors in a high-temperature ceramic housing with the Platinum gas-sensitive electrode was made as an alternative to Palladium. The operating temperature and test signal frequency influence for measuring the sensor’s capacitance on the sensitivity to H2 have been studied.”

   56. Samotaev N., Litvinov A., Oblov K., Etrekova M., Podlepetsky B., Dzhumaev P. «Combination of Material Processing and Characterization Methods for Miniaturization of Field-Effect Gas Sensor». Sensors 2023, 23(1), 514 (Q1). DOI
  “The technological approach for the low-scale production of field-effect gas sensors for measuring low concentrations of hydrogen is described. Considerable attention was paid to the characterization of the results obtained by various invasive and non-invasive methods for diagnosing the manufactured construction.”


   55. Podlepetsky B., Samotaev N., Etrekova M., Litvinov A. «Methods and Tools for Evaluating the Characteristics of MOS-Capacitor Gas Sensors». Datchiki & Systemi (Sensors & Systems). 2022. ¹ 4 (263). P. 28-37 (in Russian).
  “Based on the electrophysical models of MIS-capacitor sensors electrical characteristics, the features of methods and tools for evaluating metrological sensors characteristics in general and on the example of hydrogen-sensitive sensor elements with a Pd-SiO2-Si structure are analyzed.”

   54. Etrekova M.O., Samotaev N.N., Litvinov A.V., Mikhailov A.A., Podlepetsky B.I. «Sensitivity of MIS Capacitors with Palladium Electrode to Aromatic Nitro Compounds Vapor». Chemical Safety Science. 2022. 6(1). 163-172 DOI
  “The temperature and time modes of the high-energy aromatic nitro compound vapor pyrolysis have been studied. The optimal conditions for reliable concentration measurement of gas-phase decomposition products of nitro compound molecules (NO2) using MIS capacitors were determined.”

   53. Etrekova M.O., Litvinov A.V., Samotaev N.N., Kaziev A.V., Gorevoy A.T. «Formation of Gas-Sensitive MIS Sensors Electrodes: Comparison of Pulsed Laser Deposition and Magnetron Sputtering Methods». Open Readings Named After Ras Corresponding Member, Professor V.G. Mokerov. Moscow, 2022. P. 50-51 (in Russian).
  “The effect of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering (MS) at the thin film platinum electrode formation and corresponding gas-sensitive properties of capacitive MIS sensors are studied.”

   52. Samotaev N., Etrekova M., Litvinov A., Mikhailov A. «Selective Ammonia Detection by Field Effect Gas Sensor as an Instrumentation Basis for HP-Infection Primary Diagnosis». IFMBE Proceedings (Q4), 2022 Vol. 87, pp. 177-184 DOI
  “The clinical tests of device based on Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect (MIS-FE) gas sensor for Helicobacter pylori infection diagnostics (HP-infection) are done by breath test method. This method is based on detecting increase ammonia concentration in patient's exhaled air after reception of carbamide water solution.”


   51. Etrekova M., Oblov K., Samotaev N., Litvinov A. «Laser Micro Milling Technology for SMD Housing of Gas Sensors for Measuring Hydrogen Dissolved in Transformer Oil». New Materials: Advanced Technologies for Obtaining and Processing Materials. Abstracts of the 19th International School-Conference for Young Scientists and Specialists. Moscow, 2021. P. 157 (in Russian).
  “Online concentration monitoring of gases dissolved in the transformers’ oil is an effective measure for preventing emergencies due to aging or malfunction of high-voltage equipment. The monitoring method for measuring of hydrogen dissolved in transformer oil using capacitor-type MIS sensors with a limit of detection hydrogen concentration directly in the oil at a level of 0.5 ppm was proposed.”

   50. Etrekova M., Litvinov A., Samotaev N., Filipchuk D., Oblov K., Mikhailov A. «Investigation of Selectivity and Reproducibility Characteristics of Gas Capacitive MIS Sensors». Springer Proceedings in Physics. International Youth Conference on Electronics, Telecommunications and Information Technologies - Proceedings of the YETI 2020, 2021. P. 87-95 DOI
  “The influence of the dielectric material, its formation methods and technological post-processing has been investigated. The reproducibility of the characteristics of MIS structures in sensitivity and response speed was studied. The stability to the effects of 1000-fold NO2 concentration overload was investigated. A two-electrode capacitive sensor element was manufactured and tested.”

   49. Etrekova M.O., Litvinov A.V., Mikhailov A.A. «Application of the Gas Sensors Based on Capacitive MIS-Structures Obtained by Using PLD-Method for (ÑH3)2S2 Concentration Control». In the collection: Laser, plasma research and technology - Laplaz-2021. Collection of scientific papers of the VII International Conference. Moscow, 2021. Ñ. 347-348 (in Russian).
  “A method for measuring the mass concentration of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, CAS 624-92-0) (CH3)2S2 in air using MIS sensors with a Pd-SiO2-Si structure has been developed. Research and selection of the sensor's optimal operating temperature for measuring the DMDS concentration in the range from 0 to 10 mg/m3 (from 0 to 6,7 MPC of the working zone) have been carried out.”

   48. Etrekova M.O., Samotaev N.N., Litvinov A.V., Mikhailov A.A., Podlepetsky B.I. «Sensitivity of MIS-Capacitors with Palladium Electrode to Trinitrotoluene Vapors». Datchiki & Systemi (Sensors & Systems). 2021. ¹ 5 (258). P. 41-46 (in Russian).
  “The sensitivity of MIS-capacitors based on palladium-dielectric-silicon structures to TNT vapors has been investigated.”

   47. Litvinov A., Samotaev N., Etrekova M., Ivanova A., Filipchuk D. «Hydrogen Concentration Control in Oil-Filled Power Transformers Using Field Effect Capacitive Gas Sensors». Journal of the Electrochemical Society (Q1). 2021. Vol. 168. ¹ 1. P. 017503 DOI
  “A simple method is demonstrated for hydrogen concentrations measurement directly in transformer oil and in the gas space above it use a highly sensitive (at the level of units and fractions of ppm) gas sensor based on a metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitive structure (MIS sensor). The results obtained can be used in online monitoring systems and predicting the power transformers integral performance, in particular those that have been put into operation long ago, by tracking slow and invisible at the initial stage aging processes of current-carrying connections and structural elements.”


   46. Samotaev N., Oblov K., Etrekova M., Veselov D., Ivanova A., Litvinov A. «Improvement of Field Effect Capacity Type Gas Sensor Thermo Inertial Parameters by Using Laser Micromilling Technique». Materials Science Forum (2nd ICMMPM-2019), Q4. 2020. Vol. 977. P. 256-260 DOI
  “This paper presents a verification of technology aspects for improvement of field effect capacity type gas sensor parameters by using laser micromilling technique for fabrication ceramic surface mounting device (SMD) package and microheater for sustentation working temperature of metal-insulator-semiconductor structure (MIS structure).”

   45. Samotaev N., Litvinov A., Etrekova M., Oblov K., Filipchuk D., Mikhailov A. «Prototype of Nitro Compound Vapor and Trace Detector Based on a Capacitive MIS Sensor». Sensors (Switzerland). Vol. 20. ¹ 5. P. 1514 DOI
  “A prototype of a nitro compound vapor and trace detector, which uses the pyrolysis method and a capacitive gas sensor based on the metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) structure type Pd–SiO2–Si, was developed and manufactured. It was experimentally established that the detection limit of trinitrotoluene trace for the detector prototype is 1õ10-9 g, which corresponds to concentration from 10-11 g/cm3 to 10-12 g/cm3. The prototype had a response time of no more than 30 s. The possibility of further improving the characteristics of the prototype detector by reducing the overall dimensions and increasing the sensitivity of the MIS sensors is shown.”


   44. Samotaev N., Oblov K., Litvinov A., Etrekova M. «SnO2-Pd as a Gate Material for the Capacitor Type Gas Sensor». 2019 IEEE 31st International Conference on Microelectronics, MIEL 2019 - Proceedings. 31. 2019. P. 153-156 DOI
  “The article describes the result of the use SnO2-Pd thin films as a gate for structure measured ppb range of NO2 gas by the capacitive method. The technological aspect of fabrication SnO2-Pd gate and one comparison by metrological parameters with the classical Pd gate field effect sensor is discussed. The use of SnO2-Pd material allows improvement in sensitivity of NO2 by an order of magnitude compare the classical Pd based gate field effect sensors.”

   43. Etrekova M.O., Litvinov A.V., Samotaev N.N., Korolev N.A. «Volt-Farade Characteristics and Mechanism of Sensitivity of Sensors on the Basis of MIS-Structure». Open Readings Named After Ras Corresponding Member, Professor V.G. Mokerov. Moscow, 2019. P. 165-166 (in Russian).
  “The dependence of the shift of the C-V characteristics of the MIS sensor on the concentration of hydrogen in air is measured. Surface density of trapping centers in the metal-dielectric interface was estimated.”

   42. Samotaev N.N., Litvinov A.V., Etrekova M.O. «Detection of Chlorine by Field Effect Sensor». Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Q4). 2019. 012086 DOI
  “The gas analytical system for chlorine gas measurement based on metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect (MIS FE) type sensor has been developed. High sensitivity of MIS FE sensor to chlorine allows measuring concentrations in the sub-ppb level and to be stable for overload hydrogen gas concentration typically present in industrial electrolysis application. With the pulse heating mode, the response and relaxation times of the MIS sensor are reduced by an order of magnitude which gives chance to use one for high precision environmental control.”

   41. Etrekova M.O., Litvinov A.V., Mikhailov A.A. «The Detection of Nitro Compounds Vapor Using Sensors Based on MIS Structures Manufactured by Laser Deposition». Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Q4). IV International Conference "Laser and Plasma Research and Technologies, LaPlas-2018. 2019. 012012 DOI
  “The conditions of the detection of nitro compounds vapors were investigated using the trinitrotoluene as an example. The detection method consists of pyrolysis and later registration by the MIS-sensor of gaseous products of thermal decomposition. It was shown that the offered method allows to achieve the detection limit of 1x10-12 g/cm3 (particles – 1 ng) with respect to the vapors of trinitrotoluene.”

   40. Filipchuk D.V., Litvinov A.V., Mikhailov A.A., Etrekova M.O. «Investigation of the Influence of Changing the Relative Humidity on Readings of the Gas Detector Based on MIS-Sensor». V International Conference "Laser and Plasma Research and Technologies, LaPlas-2019. 2019. P. 180-181 (in Russian).
  “It's known that MIS-sensors are able to respond to changes in the water vapor pressure in ambient air, and the response value of the sensors can be comparable to the response value of the target component's, which can cause false triggers of the gas analyzer based on the MIS-sensor in real conditions. As part of this work, a method for correcting indications for the pressure of water vapor in ambient air was proposed and tested. This method allows to reduce the response to the change in water vapor pressure by 6 times compared with the initial value.”

   39. Litvinov A.V., Samotaev N.N., Etrekova M.O., Klishin Y.A., Korolev N.A. «Cluster Model of the Mechanism of Sensitivity of Gas Sensors Based on MIS Structures». Physics of Atomic Nuclei (Q4). 2019. Vol. 82. ¹ 11. P. 1499-1502 DOI
  “A cluster model of the mechanism of sensitivity to gases is proposed, according to which the change in the electric capacity of a MIS sensor under the action of gas is caused by a change in the dielectric constant of the metal-dielectric transition layer under the action of gas molecules. The dielectric constant of the transition layer changes due to the rearrangement of the electronic structure of the traps.”

   38. Samotaev N.N., Litvinov A.V., Podlepetsky B.I., Etrekova M.O., Philipchuk D.V., Mikhailov A.A., Bukharov D.G., Demidov V.M. «Methods of Measuring the Output Signals of the Gas-Sensitive Sensors Based on MOS-Capacitors». Datchiki & Systemi (Sensors & Systems). 2019. ¹ 5 (236). P. 47-53 (in Russian).
  “The paper analyzes three methods of capacitance measurement (amplitude with divider, amplitude bridge and pulse) in order to select the optimal modes of measurement of the output signals of MIS-capacitor sensors used as components of gas analysis.”


   37. Litvinov A.V., Etrekova M.O. «Measurement of Low Concentrations of Hydrogen in Oxygen by Using Sensors Based on MIS Structures». Breakthrough directions of scientific research at MEPhI: Development prospects within the Strategic Academic Units. Conference Paper: "KnE-Engineering" 2018. P. 202-205 DOI
  “It is shown that the possibility of using MIS-sensors as sensitive elements of gas analyzers for monitoring the concentration of hydrogen in the range of 5õ10-5 ... 1% in oxygen. The article reports on the possibility of measuring low concentrations of hydrogen (0.5... 10 ppm) in oxygen using a MIS-sensor (metal-insulator-semiconductor).”

   36. Filipchuk D.V., Litvinov A.V., Etrekova M.O., Nozdrya D.A. «Investigation of the Sensitivity of MIS-Sensor to Thermal Decomposition Products of Cables Insulation». Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Q4). III International Conference on Laser and Plasma Researches and Technologies. 2018. 012061 DOI
  “Sensitivity of the MIS-sensor to products of thermal decomposition of insulation and jacket of the most common types of cables is investigated. It is shown that hydrogen is evolved under heating the insulation to temperatures not exceeding 250ºÑ. Registration of the evolved hydrogen by the MIS-sensor can be used for detection of fires at an early stage.”

   35. Mikhailov A.A., Filipchuk D.V., Etrekova M.O., Litvinov A.V. «Measuring Hydrazine Hydrate Vapor Concentrations in Air Using MIS-Sensors». Chemical Safety Science. 2018. Vol. 2. ¹ 2. P. 131-138 (in Russian) DOI
  “Due to the high toxicity of hydrazine hydrate, regular control of its vapor concentration in the air of the working area is required. Measuring the vapor concentrations of hydrazine hydrate can be performed by means of MIS-sensors. The sensitivity of two sensors with MIS-type structures toward vapor concentrations of hydrazine hydrate in the air has been studied. The minimum detectable concentration of hydrazine hydrate using the sensors is found to be 0.005 mg/m3 (in laboratory conditions). A pilot unit of gas analyzer has been developed which is characterized by simple design, reliability, and high sensitivity for hydrazine hydrate vapors.”

   34. Bolodurin B.A., Mikhailov A.A., Filipchuk D.V., Etrekova M.O., Korchak V.Y., Pomazan Y.V., Litvinov A.V., Nozdrya D.A. «Comprehensive Research on the Response of MIS Sensors of Pd-SiO2-Si and Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si Structures to Various Gases in Air». Russian Journal of General Chemistry (Q3). 2018. Vol. 88. ¹ 12. P. 2732-2739 DOI
  “The response Pd–SiO2–Si and Pd–Ta2O5–SiO2–Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) sensors to H2, H2S, NO2, C2H5SH, NH3, and Cl2 in air was studied. The static and dynamic characteristics of the MIS sensors were obtained. The minimum detectable concentrations of the test gases were determined. It is shown that the MIS sensors are highly sensitive to the studied gases.”


   33. Litvinov A.V., Etrekova M.O. «Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of MIS sensors using periodic pulsed heating». Certificate of registration of the computer program RU 2016663360, 06.12.2016. No. 2016660775, 10/14/2016 (in Russian).
  “The program is designed to measure low concentrations of gases (H2, NO2, H2S, NH3, etc.) using a MIS sensor at the level of ppb units and is used in ecology, medicine, and science.”

   32. Litvinov A.V., Etrekova M.O. «Capacitance measurement and heating temperature control of MIS structures». Certificate of registration of the computer program RU 2016610465, 01/12/2016. No. 2015661170, 11/18/2015 (in Russian).
  “MIS structures are sensitive elements of sensors for measuring gas concentrations. The capacitance of MIS structures is measured using a specialized microcircuit for direct capacitance conversion into a digital code. The program allows you to set and control the temperature of MIS structures, scan the capacitance of structures at various values of the voltage on the structure.”

   31. Asavin A.M., Ignatov Yu.A., Litvinov A.V. «Experimental calibration of MDM-type gas sensors in gas mixtures and in vacuum». Proceedings of the All-Russian Annual Seminar on Experimental Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry (VESEMPG-2016). Moscow. Ed. A.A. Kadik. 2016. P. 175-176 (in Russian).
  “The paper discusses the methodological error calibration of gas sensors in the measurement evaluation of pollution in the atmosphere. A method for determination of the zero value for the comparison of measurements of different sensors.”


   30. Litvinov A.V., Etrekova M.O. «Measurement of dynamic and capacitance-voltage characteristics of MIS sensors». Computer program registration certificate RU 2015663469, 12/18/2015. No. 2015660338, 10/29/2015 (in Russian).
  “The MIS sensor is designed to measure the concentrations of certain gases. For the correct operation of the sensor, it is necessary to set the bias voltage and operating temperature. The bias voltage is set in the range of ±2.5 V, the temperature is in the range of 80 - 150°C. The capacitance of the sensor varies from 0 to 3000 pF.”


   29. Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N. «MIS-Sensors with Different Metal and Insulator Layers». Automation and Remote Control. 2013. Vol. 74. ¹ 2. P. 295-300 DOI
  “Several modifications of MIS-sensors manufactured using the thin-film laser evaporation technology with different insulator layers and metal electrodes are presented. Metrological characteristics of these MIS-sensors are established. Two types of the sensors possessing abnormally high and low sensitivities to H2, H2S, NO2 and NH3 are identified; the stated types are of practical interest in applications as sensitive elements of gas analyzers. Finally, the presence of catalytic properties in metal electrodes is demonstrated to be not necessary for sensitivity of the devices. This fact seems important for developing the microscopic theory of sensitivity of MIS-sensors.”

   28. Litovchenko A.V., Ignatenko G.K., Glushkov Yu.M., Larin N.V., Litvinov A.V. «Subsoil air sampling device». Utility model patent RU 132557 U1, 20.09.2013. No. 2012156298/05, 12/24/2012 (in Russian).
  “The device for sampling underground air is designed to take samples of underground air from a given depth during geological surveys, environmental studies or for monitoring underground gas pipelines in order to detect and assess the intensity of gas leakage without opening gas pipeline trenches.”

   27. Litovchenko A.V., Ignatenko G.K., Larin N.V., Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N. «A method for determining the intensity of release of gases lighter than air from the surface of porous objects and a device for its implementation». Patent for invention RU 2502977 C2, 12/27/2013. No. 2011151896/28, 12/19/2011 (in Russian).
  “The invention relates to the measurement of the intensity of outgassing from soil, minerals stored (poured and/or stacked) with significant masses of other substances. The method is based on the use of gas analyzers and a tent of any shape (installed on a selected area of the surface), open at the bottom and made of a gas-tight material.”


   26.  Litvinov A.V., Kalinina L.N., Nikolaev I.N. The hydrogen gas analyzer on the based of MIS–sensor with low power consumption. Metrology (Russian scientific journal), ¹12 (2012) 37-41.
   “It was produce new type of sensors with structure Pd-Si3N4-SiO2-Si, which operate at temperatures 6-50ºÑ. On the based of creating sensors it was developed model of gas analyzer for measurements hydrogen concentrations in range 0,2-4 vol.%. It was reduced gas analyzers power consumption from 1,6 W to 0,1 W due to lack of heating element on the sensors.”


   25.  Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N. The MIS-sensors with different metallic and dielectric layers. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), ¹2 (2011) 20-23.
   “It was produced several type of MIS-sensors with different dielectric layers and metallic electrodes by means laser thin films evaporation. It was measured metrological characteristics of these sensors. It was found two type sensors with high and low sensitivity to H2, H2S, NO2 and NH3. These sensors can be used as sensitive elements of gas analyzers. It was demonstrated, that the presence of catalytic properties of the metallic electrodes isn’t necessary condition for existence sensor sensitivity. This fact is interest for creation microscope theory of MIS-sensors sensitivity.”


   24.  Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N. The particular of the MIS-sensors dynamic characteristics. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), ¹6 (2010) 12-17.
   “This paper deals with the particular of dynamic characteristics, which was found on some type of the MIS-sensors. This particular consist in crossing through zero of the sensors signal during relaxation (after removal gas) and the sensors signal remain negative during long time. This phenomenon introduces relatively small error in measurements of gas concentration, therefore it can be neglect. However founded effect can be of interest for creation microscopical theory of trap centers, which are responsible for sensitivity to gases of the MIS-sensors.”


   23. Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N., Sulhanova K.N. An extension of measurable hydrogen concentrations range for MIS – sensors. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), ¹4 (2009) 6-8.
   “This article reports about the development of new type of MIS – sensors with structure Ag-Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si, which are capable directly (without the special methods of choice gas sampling) measuring hydrogen concentrations down to 20 vol.% in air.”

   22. Nikolaev I.N., Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V. The new type of strapping sites for molecules with dipole moments in dielectric. Solid state physics (Russian scientific journal), vol.51, ¹6 (2009) 1065-1069 .
   "The analysis of MOS-sensors sensitivity mechanism and series of experiments show, that electrical charged strapping sites for molecules with dipole moments are formed in thin dielectric layers, doped catalytic atoms. It is supposed, that the traps are nanoklasters, which consist of dielectric atoms and atoms of catalytic metal. It is possible, that this type of traps is observed in other physical phenomenon."

   21. Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V., Mihailov A.A., Nikolaev I.N. The MIS – sensors for measurements concentrations H2S over the range 0,005-10 ppm in air. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), ¹6 (2009) 16-19.
   “It was investigated the static characteristics H2S of MIS – sensors over the range 2-7 ppm. It was established, that sensors with structures Pd-SiO2-Si and Pd-Si3N4-Si have sufficient concentration resolution of H2S and acceptable time resources of work, t = D/K, where D is the integrated dose of exposure in H2S, expressed in the unit ppm•hour, and K is the average concentration of H2S in air. It was made a deduction about application of such sensors as sensitive elements gas-analyzers for control ambient air standard H2S at working area.”


   20. Nikolaev I. N., Galiev R. R. Nanostructure of laser-deposited palladium thin films on different substrates. Journal of Surface Investigation. X-ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques, 2008, Vol. 2, No. 1, 98–103.
   "The morphological features of palladium thin films deposited on different substrates are described. Film deposition has been performed by means of the pulsed laser evaporation method. It is shown that the grain structure of palladium films is formed independently of the substrate roughness. Particular emphasis is placed on the correlation between gas-sensitive metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) sensor properties and the nanostructure of palladium films used as metal electrodes in these sensors. It is concluded that a change in the morphology of palladium films has no direct influence on the degradation of the hydrogen sulphide sensitivity of MIS sensors that arises after sensor annealing in air enriched with hydrogen."

   19.  Nikolaev I.N., Kalinina L.N., Litvinov A.V. The MOS - sensors for measurement concentrations of hydrogen in range 10-4-102 vol.%. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), ¹12 (2008) 48-52.
   "The new type of MOS - sensors, which allow to measure directly concentration of hydrogen in broadened range (to 10 vol.%). Using such sensors and the special scheme of choice gas samples, one can measure concentrations of hydrogen down to 100 vol.%. It can be created a new class of hydrogen gas - analyzer based on the developed MOS - sensors and suitable for solution series of hydrogen power engineering technical problems."

   18.  Lazebnik L.B., Mihaylov A.A., Morozov I.A., Nikolaev I.N., Nozdrya D.A., Churikova A.A. Estimation of efficiency of Helicobacter pylori diagnostics by means of an ammonia gas-analyzer on the basis of MIS-sensor in comparison with invasive diagnostics methods. Journal of experimental and clinical gastroenterology, ¹8 (2008) 54-58.
   "Successful clinical trials of MIS-sensor based device prototype for Helicobacter Pilory infection diagnostics by means of breath test has been carried out. Results analysis has revealed that such a device can be recommended to be adopted to a medical practice and can be competitive to up-to-date medical diagnostic equipment."


   17. Nozdrya D. A., Litvinov A. V., Nikolaev I. N. The portable ammonia gas-analyzer in the range of 0.02-104 ppm on basis of MOS-sensor. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), ¹6 (2007) 72-74 .
   "An ammonia gas-analyzer in the range of 0.02-104 ppm on basis of MOS-sensor is developed. Such a wide dynamic range is achieved by means of microprocessor adjusting of operating mode of sensor. The gas-analyzer is small-size, portable, simple in use and low-cost."


   16. Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N. Interference of MIS-sensors sensitivities to gases concentrations in air. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), ¹2 (2006) 62-64.
  “Interference of MIS-sensors sensitivities has been detected. It is consist the response of sensors to concentration of measurable gas in air depends on kind and concentration of concomitant gas. The sensitivity is depends on proportions of measurable and concomitant gases. The mechanism has been suggests is suppose that the interference effect is determined by molecules gas population of catches on metal-insulator interface.”

   15. Nikolaev I. N., Ounitchenko P. O. Sensitivity of MOS-sensors to vapours of organic compounds. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), ¹3 (2006) 34-37.
  “Sensitivities of MOS-sensors (Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si) to vapours of 13 organic compounds are measured. It is shown that the sensitivities are 104-106 times lower than sensitivities to simple gases. The sensitivities can be increased by means of external heating element. Received results are discussed using a model of sensitivity that supposes existence of charged traps on the metal-oxide interface.”

   14. Yemelin E. V., Nikolaev I. N. The sensitivity of MOS-sensors to hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen dioxide in different conditions. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), ¹5 (2006) 68-70.
  “The sensitivity of MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) - sensors with Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si structures to hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen dioxide has been measured in the atmosphere of nitrogen and oxygen and also in air. It was shown that the MOS-sensors can operate in different conditions, except the corrosive gases. Also the MOS-sensors can operate in vacuum.”

   13. Nikolaev I. N., Yemelin E. V., Zharkovskiy A. E. The humidity influence on MOS-sensors characteristics. Sensor (Russian scientific journal), ¹3 (2006) 15-18.
  “The sensitivity of MOS-sensors with Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si structures to the water vapour has been measured. The humidity influence on MOS-sensors sensitivity to different gases has been determined. It was revealed that the sensitivity of MOS-sensors to the water vapour is lower on few orders of magnitude than the sensitivity to hydrogen. The changes of relative humidity of the environment haven't an influence upon MOS-sensors sensitivity to H2, H2S, NO2 and NH3 over the range 50 - 100% at temperature 23°C. High humidity (drop point) doesn't cause the degradation of sensors characteristics at room temperature.”

   12. Nikolaev I. N., Litvinov A. V., Yemelin E. V. A model of MIS sensors sensitivity mechanism to gas concentration. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), ¹7 (2006) 66-73.
  “A model of MIS sensors sensitivity to gas concentration is proposed. According to the model, the sensitivity occurs owing to the capture of gas molecules with electric dipole moments by polar traps located in the metal-insulator interface area. The model fairly reflects the available experimental data and outlines the ways to overcome problems that hamper MIS sensors application as gas analyzer sensing elements.”

   11. Nikolaev I. N., Unichenko P. O. Sensor explosives detector. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), ¹10 (2006) 46-47.
   “A mockup of sensor explosives detector is developed and fabricated. The device enables quick detection of explosives’ vapors such as trinitrotoluene, dinitrotoluene, nitroglycerine, etc., at the concentration level of - 10-12g/sm3

   10. Nikolaev I. N., Nozdrya D. A. About the possibility of use of sensor-based gas analyzers for diagnostics of diseases using breath test method. Physics medicine (Russian scientific journal), ¹2, V.16 (2006) 15-20.
   “For our recently developed MIS-sensor based gas analyzers suited for hydrogen breath test and Helicobacter pylori infection detection successful laboratory tests were carried out. The analysis of the results reveals that the experience achieved can be applied for another breath test methods, thus making this technique competitive with regard to currently used expensive and complicated devices."


   9. Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev I.N. Degradation of characteristics of MOS-sensors under action H2S, NO2 è Í2. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), ¹8 (2005) 41-48.
  “Degradation of MIS-sensors characteristics under exposure on H2S, NO2 and Í2 air has been investigated. Degradation on H2S and NO2 can be eliminated by long-continued annealing in air at a high temperature but degradation on Í2 is found to be irreversible. The method for the elimination of reversible degradation of MIS-sensors as a sensitive element of gas analyzers is offered.”

   8. Litvinov A.V., Nikolaev N.N. On the mechanism of MIS sensors sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), ¹8 (2005) 42-45.
  “Based on experimental data, the paper shows that MIS sensors sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide is determined by H2S molecules diffusion through the pores of the gate’s fine crystal palladium film to metal–dielectric interface and by molecules trapping. Up to 180°C molecules do not dissociate on the gate’s palladium film. The earlier detected sensor performance degradation under H2S exposure is reversible up to 180°C and does not impede MIS sensors application as sensing elements in gas analyzers.”

   7. Emelin E.V., Nikolaev I.N., Sokolov A.V. MIS sensors sensitivity to various gases air content. Sensors and Systems (Russian scientific journal), ¹10 (2005) 37-39.
  “The sensitivity of Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si MIS sensors to the air content of various gases is measured. The paper shows that MIS sensors demonstrate the highest sensitivity to H2S, NO2, C2H5SH, H2, D2, and NH3. It suggests that sensors sensitivity is determined by the presence of electric dipole moments in the analyte molecules.”


   6. Nikolaev I. N., Krashevskaya V. V. Rapid resistive sensor of explosive hydrogen concentrations. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), ¹3 (2004) 59-62.
  “The new type of resistive sensor of hydrogen concentration (higher 1 volume %) which action based on chemical reaction of reduction palladium oxide thin film by hydrogen is suggested for practical using. Responsible time of sensor makes up 0,1 s. Sensor can operate in different gas medium: air, nitrogen, helium, inert gases, hydrocarbons and others.”

   5. Nikolaev I.N., Litvinov A.V. Measuring procedure for small concentrations of H2 and H2S above the the surface of water. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), ¹5 (2004) 59-60.
   “Simple measuring procedure for small concentrations of H2 and H2S (on the level of ppm fractions) above the surface of water by using sensor gas analyzer is suggested. The procedure is easily realized in nonlaboratory conditions.”

   4. Nikolaev I. N., Galiev R. R., Litvinov A. V., Utotchkin U. A. Sensor based selective gas-analyzer for low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), ¹6 (2004) 67-69.
  “Sensor (based on MOS-capacitor) gas-analyzer of hydrogen sulfide concentration in the range of 5-200 ppb (on level of maximum allowable concentration in sanitary zone) is suggested. Gas-analyzer is fully selective attitude to hydrogen sulfide. ”

   3. Nikolaev I. N., Litvinov A. V. Sensor based hydrogen leak detector. Tyazheloe mashinostroenie ('Heavy engineering', Russian scientific journal), ¹6 (2004) 47-48.
  “Sensor (based on MOS-capacitor) detector of hydrogen leakages is suggested. Regarding to high hydrogen sensitivity the detector can sense the leakages in the range of 10-5-10-11 m3*Pa/s. The device is superior contrary to spectrometric leak detectors, i. g. it is easy to use, has low cost, small size and weight. Also sensor leak detector has advantages in case of containment inspection of heavy profiled and large constructions.”

   2. Nikolaev I.N., Litvinov A.V., Halfin T.M. Automated hydrogen gas-analyzers in the range of concentration 10-6-1,0 Vol. %. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), ¹7 (2004) 54-56.
   “Three automated hydrogen gas-analyzer modifications in the range of concentration from 10-6–1.0 Vol. % were suggested. The results of measuring are periodically recorded in the internal and external memory in real time for computer processing in the future.”

   1. Nikolaev I.N., Emelin E. V. Portable NO2 gas analyser based on MOS-sensor in the range of concentrations 0,02-2 ppm. Measurement techniques (Russian scientific journal), ¹11 (2004) 54-55.
   “Portable NO2 gas analyser based on MOS-sensor prepared by using of thin film laser deposition method has been fabricated. The gas analyser is capable to detect low NO2 concentrations in the range from 0,02 to 2 ppm.”

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